Defeating Patriarchal Politics: The Snake Woman as Goddess: A Study of the Manasa Mangal Kavya of Bengal Saumitra Chakravarty. However Mangal Kavya is a kind of religious and didactic composition there is much popularity of Manasamangal, the poetry describing the. I was inspired to write this story after having read the poem titled Manasa Mangal by Bijoya Ghosh in this Mangalkavya, the glory of Devi Manasa has.

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BaidyapurHasanhati, Udaypur, etc. Tilopa was also from Bengal region, the Pala dynasty was later followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena Empire.

Finally, Behulathe newly-wed wife of Chand’s youngest son Lakhindarmakes the goddess bow to her love for her husband through her strength of character, limitless courage and deep devotion. The texts are thus valuable not only as religious documents mangaal also historically. The poetry of Vidyapati, the great Maithili poet, though not written in Bengali and he flourished in the modern-day Darbhanga district of Bihar, India in the 14th century. Kayva, even Manasa is defeated by Behula.

In Amaravati in present-day Andhra Pradesh there is an inscription referring to a Dhamila-vaniya datable to the 3rd century CE, another inscription of about the same time in Nagarjunakonda seems to refer to a Damila. Stewart, Clint Seely, Edward C. Dharma-Thakurfolk deity of eastern India whose origins are obscure.

The Manasa Mangal begins with goddess worship originating among the lower classes such as fishers, shepherds or the Chandals who are the lowest class in Hindu hierarchy, entrusted kavha execution of criminals.

Mangal-kavya | Hindu literature |

As for example, the East Bengal, now the independent Bangladesh mnaasa there is abundance of snakes because of marshy land, dense forest, rivers etc. Note the different check digits in each.

She remains an outcaste who single-handedly wages war against the bastions of patriarchy in all its human and divine forms. Veni Madhav Das was a disciple and contemporary of Tulsidas and his work gave a new date for Tulsidas birth, the work by Bhavanidas presented more narratives in greater detail as compared to the work by Priyadas. Manasa is also known as Bisahari, Janguli and Padmavati. Being a strong Shaivite, Chand Saudagar resolutely refuses worship, despite the trials, majasa and tragedies the goddess Manasa showers upon her victim with all the fury of a woman scorned.


His decayed flesh healed, he opened his eyes. Owing to their mangzl position in the Hindu caste hierarchy, the Chandals are not included in Hindu worship and ritual observances, but here in the text, the poet shows Manasa being worshipped by them. Chandidas is also maansa for his humanist proclamation—Sabar upare iavya satya, tahar upare nai —The supreme truth is man, the Bengali translations of two great Sanskrit texts the Bhagavata Purana and the Ramayana played a crucial role in the development of Middle Bengali literature.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Another interesting fact is that, this group of poetry or mangal kavya is also exposing the geographical effect of their respective region. Members, officially known as Manass, remain in the Akademi for life, however, any member can resign from his office by his will. Later,the sage Jagatkaru married Manasa, but Chandi ruined Manasa’s wedding night.

Manasamangal Kāvya

In so doing, she has violated every conventional norm of patriarchy: But unlike the domesticated image of Chandi in the Puranic sections of the Chandi Mangalin the Manasa Mangalthe aloneness and the rejection of Manasa the rebellious female, by forces both human and divine, are constantly stressed.

It evolved the characteristics of Hinduism as the religion of the population as dhimmi under the Islamic rulers in parts of the Indian subcontinent.

Kama connotes emotional connection, sometimes with sensual devotion and erotic love, Bhakti, in contrast, is spiritual, a love and devotion to religious concepts or principles, that engages both emotion and intellection. These include, biographies mangwl Chaitanya by Gaudiya Vaishnava scholar-poets and later Vaishnava Padavali with a subgenre based on the life of Chaitanya.

The doctors are said ‘Baidya’ in local language. The two roles of Manasa also represent the ambiguity of her position as destroyer and rejuvenator, which is the essence of goddess cults as represented in the Mangal Kavyas.

Manasamangal Kāvya – WikiVisually

Tamil has a tradition dating back to the 3rd century BCE. Unlike the monopoly of the upper castes in Vedic religious practice, particularly of the Brahmins and the ostracisation of the lowest castes, who are even today debarred from certain templesthe Ashtamangala songs and form of worship envisage a more egalitarian concept among the village women, where worship is performed regardless of caste.

Upon being pleased, Krishna granted her divine Siddhi manasx and ritually worshipped her, Kashyapa married Manasa to sage Jaratkaru, kavyw agreed to marry her on the condition that he would leave her manasx she disobeyed him. Finally, Behulathe newly-wed wife of Chand’s youngest son Lakhindarmakes the goddess bow to her love for her husband through her strength of character, limitless courage and deep devotion.


There he scripted a version of the Ramayana called Mahanataka or Hanuman Nataka engraved on the Himalayan rocks using his nails. In your case you had read it kavyq school. The important poets of Mansamangal are Bijaygupta, Narayan Dev, Ketakadas Khemananda, the literal meaning being Khemananda, the servant of Manasa as the word ketaka also means Manasa.

As a consequence, the terrified Jagatkaru ran away from the house. However, as both the children were already devotees of Manasa and manxsa so well matched that the marriage went through. The poem mansaa suggests not only the victory of the non-Aryan deity over the Aryan god, but also the victory of the human spirit over the powerful goddess. Archaeologists have discovered remnants of a 4, years old Chalcolithic civilisation in the greater Bengal region, however evidence of much older Palaeolithic human habitations are found in the form of a Stone Implement and a Hand Axe in Rangamati and Feni districts of Bangladesh.

The vrata kathas are seen as a solution to all the immediate problems of the rural population through the worship of female deities.


Sage Agastya, father of Tamil literature. Even the traditional Aryan gods are seen to be somewhat set aside for their sake. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

Increasingly, instead of devotion, the participation is appearing in scholarly literature as a gloss for the term bhakti. Behula succeeds in bringing Chand’s seven sons back to life mmangal rescuing their ships. Manasa’s victory over Chand suggests the victory of the indigenous or mangzl deity over the Aryan god. Karen Pechelis states that the word Bhakti should not be understood as uncritical emotion, one who practices bhakti is called a bhakta.

The poet and poetesses of Mangal kavya tried to imitate the epic form and style in their poetry. So the village is named Baidyapur.